The First World War clearly demonstrated (displayed) importance of the chemical industry for development of the industrial potential and consolidation of the country's defensive capacity. In the sphere of chemistry and chemical technology military science raised a several new questions, which needed a scientific interpretation and semicommercial testing, while, in essence, prewar Russia didn't have a developed (advanced) chemical industry and chemical factories (plants) of military destination. Therefore in 1916 a Pilot Plant was established as a middle branch (part) between the laboratory stage and the organization of repetition work of the chemical produce by initiative of the Military and Chemical committee-mans attached to the Russian Physicochemical Society. Originally, the wartime interests and requirements were had in view, then more and more evidently and definitely a broader purpose was coming to the fore - to raise the economic status of Russia by effective use her natural resources. Towards the end of 1917 the Pilot Plant fulfilled a series of productions, which had only practical importance for the state's defense, and gained (win) authority (prestige) into scientific-research circles, because the Pilot Plant prepared engineers and chemists for the different fields of the chemical industry. Thereby the basis was laid for the creation of exclusive organization in Russia. In 1919 the Military and Chemical Committee was reorganized to a Russian Institute of Applied Chemistry (RIAC) by its own decision and the Pilot Plant was passed to this one. In 1925 RIAC was given a new name - State Institute of Applied Chemistry, in 1982 on its basis a Research-and-production Association '' State Institute of Applied Chemistry'' was established, and in 1992 by decree of Russia's president the Research-and-production Association was reorganized to a Russian Scientific Center Applied Chemistry. Chemico-technological and chemistry laboratories of Academy of Sciences, University, Technological and Polytechnic Institutes and Institute of Mines, Artillery Academy, Engineering Academy and Army Medical College, Military department's central laboratory, scientific and technical laboratory of Naval Department were taking part in the functioning of Institute. Famous Russian scientists - members of the Academy - N.S. Kurnakov, V.N. Ipatev, professors A.E. Favorski, V.E. Tishenko, L.A. Chugaev, P.P. Fedotev, A.E. Porai-Koshiz and A.A. Yakovkin were founders of our Institute. Academician N.S. Kurnakov became a director of Institute. In the early years of the activity the Institute was bending every effort to the release from import and supply of our country by fundamental chemical products. The twentieth on the basis of the workings out (up) of Institute (L.A. Chugaev, V.P. Ilinski, B.K. Klimov) the production of phosphorus, berthollet salt, phosphoric anhydride, phosphoric acid, mineral and organic dye-stuffs, pure reagents and other products was started. A few years later the industrial production of cyanic compounds, providing needs of gold-mining and other branches of industry, was started at the Chemical Industrial Complex in the next towns: Chernorechensk, Voskresensk and Loxvizk on the basis of the workings out (up) of Institute too. Theoretical and pilot researches, realized under the direction of N.S. Kurnakov, were based on processing's technology of sylvinite and carnllite in the Verxnekamski field of potassium salts and made possible a creation of the biggest manufacture's base of potassium salts and raw material for the getting of magnesium. Construction in Volxovstroy-city of the first factory over the processing of alumina by the method, worked out under the direction of A.A. Yakovkin, started a creation of the domestic aluminium industry. The investigations, conducted by professors P.F. Antipin and A.F. Alabushev in the field of the electrolysis of molten salt, provided a basis for the production of metallic magnesium and natrium. In Leningrad on the basis of this investigations the first in our country pilot plant on getting of magnesium was built. At the same time professor P.P. Fedotev and his colleagues worked up a technology of electrolytic getting of nickel and cobalt. In the thirties the research studies of synthesis of the chlorinated compounds on basis of acetylene were finished. This research studies paved the way to a creation of the manufacturing technologies of the artificial chlorinated caoutchouc "Sovpren". Investigations of academician A.E. Favorsky and Professor A.L. Klebansky consolidated priority of the native chemical science in this sphere. At the same time a new mode of production of the active piroluzit, which exceeded in quality all depolarizeres, employed at that time, was worked out by under the direction of S.S. Markov and was employed in industry. Then many investigations, which were begun at the State Institute of Applied Chemistry, developed into the independent large scientific and technical problems, which were passed on working out to the new particularized scientific institutes - State Institute of High Pressures, All-Union Scientific-research Institute of Synthetic Rubber, All-Union Aluminium-magnesium Institute, Chloric Institute, Institute of Metallurgy and other institutes.


In proportion with development of chemical industry and with the advent of new applied institutes of the chemical type the State Institute of Applied Chemistry began giving more attention theoretical problems of applied chemistry (chemical technology) and fundamental investigations. First of all it is necessary to mention a big cycle of works, which were assumed as a basis of solution of the technological problems in the sphere of production of inorganic produce (из экономического словаря) (products), about study of saline system's balance by physicochemical analysis methods (crystal optics method, radiographic method - N.S. Kurnakov, V.P. Ilinsky). Many investigations were carried out by Institute in the sphere of chemistry and technology of halogen (chlorine, bromine, iodine) and as well as in the sphere of synthesis of organic products by way of halogen containing compounds including the chlorine-organic vehicles. The series of works about study of hydrogenation of closed-chain compound's line under pressure over the catalysts is of special importance (A.E. Favorsky, D.V. Tishenko and others). The investigations in the field of hydrometallurgy, electro-chemistry and corrosion received a considerable development (P.P. Fedotev, N.P. Fedotev). The Institute gives attention a synthesis of explosives (S.P. Vukolov) and study of the process of burning (D.P. Konovalov). By measure of evolution of the State Institute of Applied Chemistry in directions of its investigations it is clear (of course) the changes were taking place, but fundamental dominant ideas in the context of development of applied chemistry and technology are keeping and developing in our days. At the State Institute of Applied Chemistry in 1936 a designed department, on which was entrusted projection of all manufactures by technologies, working up by the Institute, was established. This department had carried out the projects of the chemical productions for the Voskresensky, Bereznikovsky, Solikamsky, Chernorechensky, Nevsky and Konstantinovsky factories by 1940. The successful familiarization of productions at referred above factories released completely our country from import such chemical products as phosphoric anhydride and phosphoric acid, pure chemical reagents, cyanic compounds, potash fertilizers, alumina for the aluminium industry, metallic magnesium and natrium, electrochemical manganese dioxide, chlorine-containing products on basis of acetylene (chloroprene rubbers) and tens of other products. In conclusion of brief review of the prewar scientific and technical activity of our Institute it is necessary to note, that its distinguishing feature was the bringing of most of the works to realization their results in industry. In period of the Great Patriotic war under difficult conditions of blockade the works of the State Institute of Applied Chemistry were directed to the most total and efficient use of the possessed raw materials in Leningrad and to the working out of processes taking into account of necessity of the maximum saving of material and energy resources. Three laboratories were functioning at the Institute. The laboratory of anti-gas protection was working out the new express- methods of indication and analysis of the poison-gases, new means of individual and collective chemical protection, new kinds of degasators, new desiccants of hopcalite cartridges for respirators. The special laboratory was fulfilling the works in the field of pyrotechnics and explosives. In this laboratory the new signal means, based on the application of colour smokes, new different signal and lighting sabers, constructions of new types of blasting facilities and inhibitors by them, the masking smokes, combustible composition for the incendiary facilities, the substitutes of aluminium and magnesium into incendiary and pyrotechnic ammunition were worked out and put into production. The laboratory of organic synthesis was carrying out the synthesizes of medicinal preparations and was working out methods of getting from the local raw materials the complicated organic compounds, necessary for ensuring of the work of Pilot Plant's workshops over production of preparation for the chemical reconnaissance's outfit, dye-stuff for signal smokes and other substances.

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